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Big And Small Cats Pdf Free |TOP|

All cats descend from the Felidae family, sharing similar musculature, cardiovascular systems, skeletal frames, and behaviour. Both the cheetah and cougar differ physically from fellow big cats, and to a greater extent, other small cats. As obligate carnivores, big cats are considered apex predators, topping their food chain without natural predators of their own.[3][4] Native ranges include the Americas, Africa, and Asia; the range of the leopard and tiger also extends into Europe, specifically in Russia.[5]

big and small cats pdf free


It is estimated that the ancestors of most big cats split away from the Felinae about 6.37 million years ago.[6] The Felinae, on the other hand, comprises mostly small to medium-sized cats, including the domestic cats, but also some larger cats such as the cougar and cheetah.[7]

The lion's larynx is longest, giving it the most robust roar. The roar in good conditions can be heard 8 or even 10 km away.[14] All five extant members of the genus Panthera contain this elongated hyoid but owing to differences in the larynx the snow leopard cannot roar. Unlike the roaring cats in their family, the snow leopard is distinguished by the lack of a large pad of fibro-elastic tissue that allows for a large vocal fold.

An animal sanctuary provides a refuge for animals to live out their natural lives in a protected environment. Usually these animal sanctuaries are the organizations which provide a home to big cats whose private owners are no longer able or willing to care for their big cats. However, use of the word sanctuary in an organization's name is by itself no guarantee that it is a true animal sanctuary in the sense of a refuge. To be accepted by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) as a bona fide animal sanctuary and to be eligible for an exemption from the prohibition of interstate movement of big cats under the Captive Wildlife Safety Act (CWSA), organizations must meet the following criteria:[25]

Internationally, a variety of regulations are placed on big cat possession.[26] In Austria, big cats may only be owned in a qualified zoo which is overseen by a zoologist or veterinarian.[27] Requirements must also be met for enclosures, feeding, and training practices. Both Russia and South Africa regulate private ownership of big cats native to each country. Some countries, including Denmark, Thailand and India, prohibit all private ownership of big cats.[26]

The members of the Panthera genus are classified as some level of threatened by the IUCN Red List: the lion,[28] leopard[29] and snow leopard[30] are categorized as Vulnerable; the tiger is listed as Endangered;[31] and the jaguar is listed as Near Threatened.[32] Cheetahs are also classified as Vulnerable,[33] and the cougar is of Least Concern.[34] All species currently have populations that are decreasing.The principal threats to big cats vary by geographic location, but primarily consist of habitat destruction and poaching. In Africa, many big cats are hunted by pastoralists or government 'problem animal control' officers. Certain protected areas exist that shelter large and exceptionally visible populations of African leopards, lions and cheetahs, such as Botswana's Chobe, Kenya's Masai Mara, and Tanzania's Serengeti; outside these conservation areas, hunting poses the dominant threat to large carnivores.[35]

In the United States, 19 states have banned ownership of big cats and other dangerous exotic animals as pets, and the Captive Wildlife Safety Act bans the interstate sale and transportation of these animals.[36] The initial Captive Wildlife Safety Act (CWSA) was signed into law on December 19, 2003.[37] To address problems associated with the increasing trade in certain big cat species, the CWSA regulations were strengthened by a law passed on September 17, 2007.[38] The big cat species addressed in these regulations are the lion, tiger, leopard, snow leopard, clouded leopard, cheetah, jaguar, cougar, and any hybrid of these species (liger, tigon, etc.). Private ownership is not prohibited, but the law makes it illegal to transport, sell, or purchase such animals in interstate or foreign commerce. Although these regulations seem to provide a strong legal framework for controlling the commerce involving big cats, international organizations such as the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) have encouraged the U.S. to further strengthen these laws. The WWF is concerned that weaknesses in the existing U.S. regulations could be unintentionally helping to fuel the black market for tiger parts.[39]

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Rhabditiform larvae in the gut become infective filariform larvae that can penetrate either the intestinal mucosa or the skin of the perianal area, resulting in autoinfection. Once the filariform larvae reinfect the host, they are carried to the lungs, pharynx and small intestine as described above, or disseminate throughout the body. The significance of autoinfection in Strongyloides is that untreated cases can result in persistent infection, even after many decades of residence in a non-endemic area, and may contribute to the development of hyperinfection syndrome.

Strongyloides fuelleborni follows the same life cycle as S. stercoralis, with the important distinction that eggs (rather than larvae) are passed in the stool . Eggs hatch shortly after passage into the environment, releasing rhabditiform larvae , that develop to either infective filariform larvae (direct development) or free-living adult males and females . The free-living adults mate and produce eggs, from which more rhabditiform larvae hatch and eventually become infective filariform larvae . The filariform larvae penetrate the human host skin to initiate the parasitic cycle . These larvae migrate via the bloodstream to the lungs, where they are eventually coughed up and swallowed, or reach the intestine via migration through connective tissue or abdominal viscera . In the small intestine, larvae molt twice and become adult female worms. Parasitic females embedded in the submucosa of the small intestine and produce eggs via parthenogenesis (parasitic males do not exist) .

Strongyloides spp. are generally host-specific, and S. stercoralis is primarily a human parasite. However, patent infections with parasitic females have been detected in other primates (chimpanzees, monkeys, etc.) and domestic dogs. Two genetic populations have been found in domestic dogs, one that appears to only infect dogs and one that may infect both dogs and humans; all human infections have been attributed to this second genetic population. Domestic cats are experimentally susceptible to S. stercoralis infections although it is unknown if they have a role as a natural reservoir.

There are about 92 breeds of cat.[9] Domestic cats are found in shorthair, longhair, and hairless breeds. Cats which are not specific breeds can be referred to as 'domestic shorthair' (DSH) or 'domestic longhair' (DLH).

The word 'cat' is also used for other felines. Felines are usually called either big cats or small cats. The big, wild cats are well known: lions, tigers, leopards, jaguars, pumas, and cheetahs. There are small wild cats in most parts of the world, such as the lynx in northern Europe. Big and wild cats are not tame, and can be very dangerous.

In the past, mostly in Egypt, people kept domestic cats because they hunted and ate mice and rats. Today, people often keep cats as pets. There are also domestic cats which live without being cared for by people. These cats are called "feral cats" or "stray cats".

The oldest evidence of cats kept as pets is from the Mediterranean island of Cyprus, around 7500 BC. Ancient Egyptians worshipped cats as gods, and often mummified them so they could be with their owners "for all of eternity".

Today, special food for cats is widely available in developed countries. Proper feeding will help a cat live longer compared to hunting or being fed table scraps. Not correctly feeding a cat can lead to problems (see below for health concerns).

Cats have anatomy similar to the other members of the genus Felis. The genus has extra lumbar (lower back) and thoracic (chest) vertebrae. This helps to explain the cat's spinal mobility and flexibility. Unlike human arms, cat forelimbs are attached to the shoulder by free-floating clavicle bones. These allow cats to pass their body through any space into which they can fit their heads.[10]

The cat skull is unusual among mammals in having very large eye sockets and a powerful and specialized jaw.[11]:35 Compared to other felines, domestic cats have narrowly spaced canine teeth: this is an adaptation to their preferred prey of small rodents.[12] Cats, like dogs, walk directly on their toes, with the bones of their feet making up the lower part of the visible leg.[13]

Cats walk very precisely. Unlike most mammals, when cats walk, they use a "pacing" gait (walking style); that is, they move the two legs on one side of the body before the legs on the other side. This trait is shared with camels and giraffes. As a walk speeds up into a trot, a cat's gait will change to be a "diagonal" gait, similar to that of most other mammals: the diagonally opposite hind and forelegs will move at the same time.[14] Most cats have five claws on their front paws, and four on their rear paws.[15] On the inside of the front paws there is something which looks like a sixth "finger". This special feature on the inside of the wrists is the carpal pad. The carpal pad is also found on other cats and on dogs.

Cats are active carnivores, meaning that in t

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